Comprehensive Exam Reading List: Memory


Current Committee Members

            Kimberly Fenn (chair), Susan Ravizza, Devin McAuley



Below is a list of journals you should monitor for content relevant articles. While we will not ask a question solely on the content of recent articles, we may ask questions that ask you to apply what you know from the content of the reading list below to a current issue or hot topic of recent articles.

·         Psychological Science

·         Learning and Memory

·         JEP: LMC

·         Memory and Cognition

·         Cognition

·         Cognitive Science

·         Cognitive Psychology

·         Journal of Memory and Language

·         Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

·         Journal of Neuroscience

·         Memory


The following book may be useful for a general background reference.

·         Tulving, E., & Craik, F.I.M., (Eds.). (2000). The Oxford Handbook of Memory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Sensory Memory

1.      Cowan, N. (1984). On Short And Long Auditory Stores. Psychological Bulletin. 96(2), 341- 370.[PDF]

2.      Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 74(11), 1-30.[PDF]


Short Term Memory

3.       Miller, G.A. (1956). The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.[PDF]

4.      Cowan, N. (2000). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87-185.[PDF]


Longterm Memory

A.     Declarative/Explicit vs Procedural/Implicit memory

5.       Jacoby, L. L., Toth, J. P., & Yonelinas, A. P. (1993). Separating conscious and unconcious influences of memory: Measuring recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122(2), 139-154.[PDF]

6.      Knowlton, B.J., Mangels, J.A., & Squire, L.R. (1996). A neostriatal habit learning system in humans. Science, 273(5280), 1399-1402.[PDF]

7.      Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory (pp. 381-402). New York, NY: Academic Press.

8.      Squire, L. R. (1986). Mechanisms of memory. Science, 232(4758), 1612-1619.[PDF]


B.      Prospective memory, Source memory, and Autobiographical memory

9.      Einstein, G. O., McDaniel, M. A., Thomas, R., Mayfield, S., Shank, H., Morisette, N., & Breneiser, J. (2005). Multiple processes in prospective memory retrieval: Factors determining monitoring versus spontaneous retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 327-342.[PDF]

10.  Johnson, M.K., Hashtroudi, S., & Lindsay, D.S. (1993) Source Monitoring, Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28.[PDF]

11.  Janata, P. (2009). The neural architecture of music-evoked autobiographical memories. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2579-2594.[PDF]


Longterm Memory: Factors that affect storage

12.  Craik. F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of Processing: A framework for Memory Research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684.[PDF]

13.  Gobet, F., Lane, P.C.R., Croker, S., Cheng, P.C.H., Jones, G., Oliver, I., & Pine, J.M. (2001). Chunking mechanisms in human learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5, 236-243.[PDF]

14.  Greene, R.L. (1989). Spacing effects in memory: Evidence for a two-process account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15(3), 371-377.[PDF]

15.  Tulving, E., & Thompson, D. M. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80, 352-373.[PDF]


The influence of emotion and stress on memory

16.  Canli T., Zhao Z., Brewer J., Gabrieli J.D., & Cahill L. (2000). Event-related activation in the human amygdala associates with later memory for individual emotional experience. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(RC99), 1–5.[PDF]

17.  Kensinger, E.A., & Corkin, S. (2004). Two routes to emotional memory: Distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 101, 3310-3315.[PDF]

18.  Rogan, M.T., Staubli, U.V., & LeDoux, J.E. (1997). Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala. Nature, 390, 604-607.[PDF]


Measuring memory

19.   Anderson, J. R., & Bower, G. H. (1972). Recognition and retrieval processes in free recall. Psychological Review, 79, 97–123.[PDF]

20.  Haist, F., Shimamura, A.P., & Squire, L.R. (1992). On the relationship between recall and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18(4), 691-702.[PDF]

21.  Yonelinas, A.P. (2002). The nature of recollection and familiarity: a review of 30 years of research. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 441–517.[PDF]



22.  Anderson, M.C., Bjork, R.A., & Bjork, E.L. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1063–1087.[PDF]

23.  Ebbinghaus H. (1885/1913). Memory. A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. New York, NY: Teachers College/Columbia University.

24.  Sahakyan, L. (2004). Destructive effects of “forget” instructions. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(3), 555-559.[PDF]

25.  Wixted, J.T. (2004). The psychology and neuroscience of forgetting. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 235-269.[PDF]

26.  Oberauer, K., & Lewandowsky, S. (2008). Forgetting in immediate serial recall: Decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference? Psychological Review, 115(3), 544-576.[PDF]



27.  Corkin, S., Amaral, D. G., González, R. G., Johnson, K. A., & Hyman, B. T. (1997). H. M.'s medial temporal lobe lesion: Findings from magnetic resonance imaging. The Journal of Neuroscience, 17(10), 964–3979.[PDF]

28.  Graf, P., & Schacter, D. (1985). Implicit and explicit memory for new associates in normal and amnesic subjects.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 501-518.[PDF]

29.  Schmolck, H., Kensinger, E.A., Corkin, S., & Squire, L.R. (2002). Semantic knowledge in Patient H.M. and other patients with bilateral medial and lateral temporal lobe lesions. Hippocampus, 12(4), 520–533.[PDF]

30.  Squire L.R., Clark R.E., & Knowlton, B.J. (2001). Retrograde amnesia. Hippocampus, 11, 50–55.[PDF]


False memory

31.   Loftus, E. F, & Hoffman, H.G. (1989). Misinformation and memory: The creation of new memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 100-104.[PDF]

32.  Roediger, H.L. III, & McDermott, K.B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814.[PDF]

33.  Schacter, D.L., Norman, K.A., & Koutstaal, W. (1998). The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory, Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 289-318.[PDF]

34.  Watson, J.M., Bunting, M.F., Poole, B.J., & Conway, A.R.A. (2005). Individual differences in susceptibility to false memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(1), 76-85.[PDF]


Memory Models

35.  Anderson, J. R., Bothell, D., Byrne, M. D., Douglass, S., Lebiere, C., & Qin, Y . (2004). An integrated theory of the mind. Psychological Review 111(4), 1036-1060. [PDF]

36.  Atkinson, R.C., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In: K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (pp. 89-195). New York, NY: Academic Press, New York.  [PDF]

37.  Gillund, G., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1984). A retrieval model for both recognition and recall. Psychological Review, 91, 1-67.[PDF]

38.  Hintzman, D. L. (1986). "Schema abstraction" in a multiple-trace model. Psychological Review, 93, 411-428.[PDF]

39.  Jacoby, L.L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 513-541.[PDF]

40.  Shiffrin, R.M. (2003). Modeling memory and perception. Cognitive Science, 27, 341-378.[PDF]


Neuroanatomy of Memory: Cellular/Synaptic

41.   Bliss, T.V., & Lomo, T. (1992). Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path.  Journal of Physiology, 23(2), 331-356.

42.  Hebb, D.O. (1949). The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory. New York, NY: John Wiley. (possibly restrict to pages 60-78 of the new printing).

43.  Leuner, Gould, & Shors (2006). Is there a link between adult neurogenesis and learning? Hippocampus, 16, 216-224.[PDF]


Neuroanatomy of Memory: Neural Substrates

44.   Brewer, J.B., Zhao, Z., Desmond, J.E., Glover, G.H., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (1998). Making memories: Brain activity that predicts how well visual experience will be remembered. Science, 281, 1185-1187. [PDF]

45.  Eichenbaum, H., Yonelinas, A.R., Ranganath, C. (2007) The medial temporal lobe and recognition memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience 30, 123–152.[PDF]

46.  Gabrieli J.D.E. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience of human memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 87–115.[PDF]

47.  Squire, L.R., Wixted, J.T., Clark, R.E. (2007). Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: a new perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8, 872-883.[PDF]

48.  Wheeler, M.E., Petersen, S.E., & Buckner, R.L. (2000). Memory’s echo: Vivid remembering reactivates sensory-specific cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 97(20), 11125-11129.[PDF]

49.  Hannula, D.E., & Ranganath, C. (2008). Medial Temporal Lobe Activity Predicts Successful Relational Memory Binding. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(1), 116-124.[PDF]


Memory and Aging

50.  Rosen, A.C., Prull, M.W., O’Hara, R., Race, E.A., Desmond, J.E., Glover, G.H., Yesavage, J.A., Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2002). Variable effects of aging on frontal lobe contributions to memory. NeuroReport, 13(18), 2425-2428.[PDF]

51.  Glisky, E. L., Rubin, S. R., & Davidson, P. S. R. (2001). Source memory in older adults: an encoding or retrieval problem? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition 27, 1131–1146.[PDF]

52.  Cabeza, R., Anderson, N. D., Locantore, J. K., & McIntosh, A. R. (2002). Aging gracefully: compensatory brain activity in high performing older adults. Neuroimage, 17, 1394–1402. [PDF]

53.  Colcombe, S.J., Erickson, K.I., Raz, N., Webb, A.G., Cohen, N.J., McAuley, E., & Kramer, A.F. (2003). Aerobic fitness reduces brain tissue loss in aging humans. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological and Medical Sciences, 58, 176-180.[PDF]


Recommended Additional Readings

1.       Abbott, L. F., & Nelson, S. B. (2000). Synaptic plasticity: taming the beast. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1178–1183.[PDF]

2.      Abraham & Robins (2005). Memory retention – the synaptic stability versus plasticity dilemma. Trends in Neurosciences, 28, 73-78. [PDF]

3.      Bliss, T.V., & Collingridge, G.L. (1993). A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, Nature, 361(6407), 31-39. [PDF]

4.      McEwen, B.S. (1999). Stress and hippocampal plasticity. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 22, 105-122.[PDF]

5.      McClelland, J.L., McNaughton, B.L., & O'Reilly, R.C. (1995) Why are there complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory. Psychological Review, 102, 419-457.[PDF]

6.      Cahill, L., & McGaugh, J. (1998). Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 21(7), 294-299.[PDF]